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Author : M.kumar
A Vibrant Magazine that Informs & Inspires
Planetary Federation

The Progressive Utilization Theory agrees with Albert Einstein that, “Humanity's desire for peace can be realized only by the creation of a world government.” At this stage of human civilization, there is great need to establish a world confederation. This body should have clear authority to intercede in the affairs of the regional federations in order to protect human, cultural and ecosystem rights. It would also facilitate global coordination of development so as to promote equity among the different socioeconomic units. 
Since the end of World War II, the United Nations has served the global community, helping to coordinate global development, establish and administer international law, and protect the peace. Its powers have evolved, its mandate has expanded, and the power that was originally concentrated in the hands of superpowers has been better distributed to some extent. Yet the United Nations, for all that it has contributed to world peace and development, is simply not adequate for the needs of the global society. A world government, having sovereign authority in certain spheres of life, needs to be evolved. Humanity has no other option if it is to secure a peaceful and prosperous future and life in harmony with the Earth. 
Obstacles to the Creation of a World Government 
A world government cannot be imposed; it can only come into existence if accepted by the people of the world. So for humanity to embrace the creation of a world confederation, several obstacles will need to be overcome. First, many people will feel concern over the loss of national sovereignty. National leaders, in particular, will be reticent to give up sovereignty, as they would lose a measure of their authority. Should political leaders prove resistant to the formation of a world government, then grass roots citizens' initiatives would be needed to give impetus to this progressive advance. There are also many citizens who possess nationalist sentiments who would be loath to see their country give up any of its political authority to a global body. Their fear of loss of national autonomy will need to be allayed through rational presentation of the benefits of a world body and through taking measured steps toward its formation and consolidation. 
A second cause of reluctance to accept a world governing body is that many peoples have been subjected to political, economic, or cultural imperialism. These oppressed peoples are naturally going to be suspect that a world government would be dominated by the same global powers who have had a history of seeking hegemony or economic dominance over lesser nations. This feeling of caution is not unwarranted, and so it cannot be easily dismissed. Those in the world community working to create a world government will need to acknowledge the validity of such fears, and they will need to help free all people from domination. They may also need to give certain peoples space and encouragement to strengthen their collective identities and cultural vitality. Once people are freed from domination, they can become strong and secure, and they will naturally feel open to joining a world governing body. 
A third and related reason for resistance to forming of a world government is that the main force that is presently promoting global integration is that of the transnational corporations and the global institutions that serve their interests. The world order they are establishing is one that is highly destructive to the common welfare. The global institutions that primarily serve the interests of the global economy  such as the World Trade Organization, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank  have accrued tremendous power, and this power they wield serves corporate interests above the interests of local communities and ecosystems. These powers are not exercised with loyalty to humanity, but for the power and profits of the metacorporations. So long as 
the corporate sector has such extensive influence in global affairs, it may not be wise to create a world government. That is, securing localized control of economic power needs to precede the creation of a globally centralized political authority. 
Given the climate of people's concerns  some legitimate, some unwarranted  the world government should have its powers strengthened gradually and in accord with evolving popular acceptance. For example, in its initial stage, the world government's executive powers might be limited primarily to such important areas as maintaining global peace, assuring the rights of minorities within the member states, and protecting the biosphere from ecological harm. 
To further strengthen popular acceptance and trust, the power of executing the policies enacted by the world confederation could be left to the member states. So the regional federations would have a measure of discretion in implementing legislation framed by the world body, though they should not be allowed to disregard these laws. 
Functions of the 
World Government
As the world confederation evolves it would develop and expand several major functions. Important among these would be the following. 
Board of Trade
and Resource Allocation 
To promote the balanced economic development of the planet, the world confederation should promote the equitable distribution of the world's resources, especially those vital raw materials, such as oil and aluminum, needed by all economies but which exist in only a few locations. Such resources would be regarded as the common patrimony of humanity, not as the exclusive possession of the regional federation in which they are found. Regions possessing rare and necessary raw materials would have the right to process, and would be encouraged to process, these resources into usable commodities  to smelter the copper, cut the diamonds, extract the quinine, refine the oil, etc. But they would then be expected to sell or trade, at a fair price, these commodities with those regions that may need them. 
A board would be established by the world body to oversee the fair distribution of these essential and rare materials; it would insure that they are not hoarded or not sold at inflated prices by cartels. Because this trade board would be established and overseen by the world government, it would represent fairly the interests of all of the regional federations. It is important that this board be comprised of persons of high integrity who are dedicated to the welfare of the entire global community. This mechanism for assuring the fair global distribution of important resources would significantly elevate the prosperity of all humanity. 
World Militia
If the world government is to maintain world peace, then there must be a world militia under its command that can undertake peacekeeping missions or engage in combat operations, should no other means of securing peace or securing human rights be possible. The world militia would be a standing force, not an ad hoc assembling of volunteered national forces, as occurs with present United Nations peacekeeping operations. 
The world militia alone would have control of weapons of war. The regional federations should only be allowed to possess weapons reasonably required for internal policing purposes, not armaments intended for waging war. Neither should the regional federations be allowed to maintain standing armies. They may have a system of reserve forces that could be mobilized, but not a constantly mobilized military. There should be no need for such armies, as the world militia would act as an effective deterrent to aggression. 
The dismantling of standing national armies and the restriction of military power to the world militia would represent a decisive step toward the establishment of a world government, and it is a step that would have immense benefits for the people of the world. It would not only mean that interstate and civil wars would all but disappear from the earth, but it would also allow for the immense resources squandered on national militaries and on arms manufacturing to be freed for meeting human needs. 
Audit Department 
As has been mentioned, PROUT's compartmentalized government includes an audit branch, in addition to the legislative, judicial, and executive branches. The integrity and independence of the audit branch is of critical importance, as it is the branch of government that would see to the honest and efficient functioning of the other branches. So the auditors would have to be beyond the reach of corrupting influences. Otherwise they will not be able to assure the fair and ethical conducting of elections, to investigate and root out corruption, to see that agencies do not waste the taxpayers' money, and so forth. 
The best way to protect the integrity of the audit branch would be to place its oversight under the auspices of the world confederation, which would be far removed from local and regional political pressures. So the world government should establish a department to authorize and supervise the auditing conducted within the regional federations. The world confederation's audit department would have regional branches, and these branch offices would be supervised by auditing teams from another region. That is to say, regional federations would not audit themselves, but would audit each other, under the control and coordination of the world confederation's audit department. If an audit team from one region were to find discrepancies in the region they were auditing, and if their report were then challenged by the region being audited, then a second audit team could be sent in by the world government to do an independent review. 
The audits done on the regional federations would also include audits of the member districts of the federations, as the districts are parts of the federated whole. 
Environmental Protection Department 
Another significant area in which the leadership and authority of the world government should be established is that of protecting the health and the use of the global commons. Because protection of the environment very often comes in conflict with economic development, district and regional administrations may jeaporadise regulatory policies when it comes to safeguarding the environment and controlling the use of resources (as do all present local and national governments). So it should fall to the world government to see that resources are properly stewarded and that ecosystems are properly protected. The world body should therefore establish an environmental protection department, having strong authority to constrain developmental activities in the regional federations, should those activities cause damage to the environment. 
Protecting the environment is a political issue; it is not in the realm of economics. It may affect economic policy, but in such matters local economic policy should not have the main say of the usage of land, waters, or air because this will lead to exploitation which will destroy ecological balance. So in this case the appropriate political arena should be the world order. There will be a system for protection of the planetary resources, and that will come from the confederation of world states. This confederation of world states will set a policy of global protection, and from this there will be certain codes and a department which will see to the overall protection of the global resources and environmental standards, so that all is clean and pure for all and the larger good is seen to. 
This is a global issue, not a local issue. If in California oil spills in the waters, it does not mean it is only the business of California; it is the business of the world because this will have impact on the world at large. If in Brazil the rain forest is cut, it is not only the problem of Brazil, it is the problem of the world. So there must be a world regulatory system to maintain proper environmental standards throughout the globe, and these standards must be adhered to by local samajas in their economic development. Otherwise the desire for economic progress in the local areas will override the good of the whole in terms of environmental quality. 
These environmental standards must be developed on a global perspective, not upon the needs of the local areas. There will definitely be times of conflict between the interests of the local samajas and the global environmental standards and resource development standards. This will be ongoing tension between the economic interests of local samajas and the environmental standards for the planetary development of resources and sustain ability of the planet. 
So these issues of sustain ability, resource development, and environmental integrity will be coordinated by the confederation, looking at the larger picture of global development. They will set the standards, and they will enforce the standards. There will be a bureau for this, and the bureau will have offices within each region and within each district and within each block. It will be very large. There must be a primary directive, a primary plan which everyone is following. Then implementation will be in the local level, but it will be monitored one district to another, one region to another by officials of this bureau. For this is a global issue, not a local issue, and the standards and their maintenance will be a source of rub with local economic developments. 
Local autonomy is good and well and should be there, but local control of resource development and environmental standards cannot be had, otherwise what will be to the advantage of economic development in one region may be to the detriment of other regions. 
Judicial Council 
The legislative council of the world confederation would formulate laws and authorize executive authority, and the various departments of the executive branch of the world government would administrate their programs in accord with legislative statutes and executive orders. So there would need to be, then, a judicial body within the global body to review the legislated laws and the executive orders and to adjudicate cases in which international laws may have been violated. This judicial function of the world government would be headed by a judicial council, appointed on the basis of merit. To assure its fairness, there would be representation on the judicial council from all of the regional federations. 
Cases could be brought before the world judiciary in a variety of ways. Many cases may be initiated by the regional federations. But in other instances, it may be the audit department that asks the court to review cases where global regulations are not being adhered to. Judicial action might also be sought by the legislative council or by the administration of the world confederation. 
Treasury Department 
The world government will require revenue for its operations, and this revenue would come from its member regional states. The operational contributions assessed from the regions would not be paid on a voluntary basis, as currently occurs in the United Nations, as this might disrupt the functioning of the world body. An efficient means of revenue collection will have to be put in place. This system would be established by the world council and then administered by the treasury department, which would also disburse the operating funds that are budgeted to the various institutions of the world government. 
But the treasury department would not just handle the collection and distribution of world government revenues. It would have two additional functions of importance. First, it would set and maintain regulatory standards for the world's banking system. In particular, it would insure that banks are operating soundly and that their holdings are invested in the local economies and in support of the developmental plans of the local planning commissions. So banks would be locally operated, but there would be regulatory standards set by the world treasury department to insure that the banks are kept sound and that they are operated for the maximum benefit of the local society. 
Second, the treasury department would have a significant role in regulating the world's currencies. This role would involve seeing that the regional or samaj currencies of the world are pegged to a common standard so as to insure stable rates of exchange. Much instability in local economies results from fluctuation in exchange rates. The impact of this on people's lives can be devastating. So the treasury department would be responsible for eliminating this source of economic chaos, thereby insuring greater economic stability to the world's peoples. 
Key Industries Commissions 
There are certain industries that have interregional or even global significance. These industries would be regulated and overseen by the world confederation. Commercial airplane manufacturing is an example. There may be certain production sites that are best situated to manufacture jet airliners, but all regions of the world have need of them. So, in a PROUT society, the manufacture of jet airliners would be designated as a key industry, key industries being those enterprises that have global or int erregional importance. Telecommunications would be a good example of a global key industry, and railroad transport would be an example of a key industry having interregional importance. 
The production facilities of a key industry may be locally owned, and the operation of key industry plants may be under the control of the plant's workers and management. Such aspects of the enterprise could be local concerns. But the key industry commissions would oversee the overall development of the industry on a global or interregional scale, and it would determine production needs and production standards. The commissions would also decide where best to locate key industry plants, determining this on the basis of both favorable production conditions and the equitable economic development of the world's regions. So, for example, there may be several sites that have the skilled work force, the mild weather, the convenient access to parts, etc. that are needed for airplane production. 
The key industries commission for global air transport may then distribute production among these several sites, perhaps giving more work to those sites where economic development needs stimulus. And if there is a production site that has potential, but already there are several key industries concentrated in the vicinity, then it may not get selected to also manufacture planes. The key industries commissions would not come under the executive branch of the world government, but would be supervised by the world council, as its work concerns the coordination of the internal economic activity of the regions. The commissions would function through a hierarchical administrative apparatus. Under the global commissions there would be regional administrations, and under this there would be administration of key industries on the samaj or district level. Through this administrative apparatus there would be a systematic and efficient development and coordination of the key industries. 
Extraterrestrial Affairs Department 
The boundaries of humanity's existence are no longer limited to Earth's surface, but are beginning to penetrate into space. Most space-related commercial and research activities would be undertaken by regional federations, districts, or even large enterprises. But if extraterrestrial bases were to be established there would be concerns that should be coordinated by the world government. And were space-faring races to make open contact with Earth's people, relations with these races could only be handled by a world body that could speak for humanity as a whole and arrange ambassadorial relations. So coordination of certain matters related to space should come under a department of the world confederation. The importance of this department may grow extensively over time. 
Benefits of Establishing a World Government
In a world order, three things may be done. The first and foremost advantage is that there may be the establishment of a peacekeeping force for the elimination of untold violence of one group against another so that human beings need not suffer as the victims of war. The second advantage is that the standard of living of human beings may be brought up by the consideration of global welfare and the equitable development of a global economy having proper global standards. And the third advantage is that there will be the collective movement of human society as one. With this collective movement, many new developments will occur. There will be opportunity to become space-faring, to function as a unified society, and to move along the lines of collective evolution as human beings become more and more interwoven and linked to each other, first through technological means and the sharing of a common society and then through expanded psychic development. 
In all these areas, human suffering will be minimized and human development enhanced through world government. Humanity must come out of this period of barbarism and rise to new heights. For this, world government is essential. 
Federation and Confederation 
Should the world government be a federation or a confederation? In a federation the whole becomes something of itself, something more than its parts. In a confederation there is the voluntary participation of many states or units that together form a whole, and the whole is the sum of its parts. A confederation is not a unit in itself, but consists of a united coalition of various local units. 
PROUT proposes that multinational federations be composed of the local cultural-economic units, and that these regional governments be brought together as a world confederation. But that confederation will not be more than the sum of its parts: it will not dominate all of the local areas, it would not have a separate life from the participating bodies. The collective of these local areas becomes a governing body in itself, but it has no separate authority from those local areas, it is the sum of those local areas. If one local unit decides it will make war on a second local unit, then the collective body may intervene. But it does so as a representative of the entire collective, not as an independent body and independent police force that has nothing to do with the local areas. It must be a confederation of the local economic and cultural groupings which have cooperated to form the confederation. 
World Government Intervention in Oppressive Regimes 
When there is a ruling party in a particular area which becomes highly oppressive to its people it is the responsibility of the international community to intervene. Now if there is a world confederation established, that particular country would be a part and parcel of that confederation. And the allegation that a certain country has become totalitarian and abusive to its people, this allegation may be brought before the central committee which is composed of the confederation of local regions. Then this body may decide that country must change its policy to be more in line with the stated ideals of the world federation. If the country refuses, then pressure may be applied by the federation against it. Now if the country still does not listen to this verbal warning, then stricter actions must be taken. Some kind of sanction must be applied. If it still does not listen, then intervention must escalate and international force must be brought to bear upon the situation. And if they still do not change, then the present rulers must be ousted from government and the opposing elements must be allowed to gain control. 
If the ideas of the oppressed political force in that area are more in line with the ideas of the world confederation, and the country's existing government has violated those standards in its treatments of its own people or in its international activities, then there must be a three or four point system in which: first it is brought before the confederation, then specific demands are established from the world order, and, if those demands are not met, sanctions will be taken. If sanctions are still ineffective and anti-humanitarian activities continue, then military intervention may be taken and the existing oppressive regime taken from power and the local people who opposed them given full right to rule. When the situation is stabilized, then the international peacekeeping force will be removed from the region. 
All countries will know that they must abide by the international standards that have been collectively set. If a country would change those standards, they must bring
 the change before the collective body and propose the change in standards. But they cannot simply violate the standards that have been set without repercussion, otherwise there will not be international order whatsoever. In this way, a certain humanitarian standard may become the norm within the entire world order. There must be some regulating force and some capacity to keep those who are offenders in line. If a standard is not set, and 
there is not enforcement of that standard, then there becomes no criteria for the establishment of a united human society. It need not be oppressive. It will be a confederation. That means 
that control is maintained within each individual member's 
local society. They will have local autonomy, but they are also part 
and parcel of the larger world 
body. Though the control is 
local, they must answer to the 
larger body as to their compliance with the general standards, which must be based upon humanitarian values. 
That is why there must be a common ideology, one that is based on spiritual and human values, so that it promotes the physical, psychic and spiritual welfare of all human beings, giving them maximum opportunity to pursue their personal development and to pursue the collective development of the human race.

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